Another study utilized of engineered exosome constructed from fusion platelet-derived growth element (PDGF) receptor with GE11 peptide to selective gene delivery to the epidermal growth element receptor (EGFR) expressing breast cancer mice magic size . to this treatment, including neuroprotective and neurodegeneration, remyelination, reduction of neural swelling, and recovery of function after induced injury. However, the exact mechanism of stem cells in fixing nerve damage is not yet obvious; exosomes derived from them, an important portion of their secretion, are launched as responsible for an important portion of such effects. Numerous studies over the past few decades possess evaluated the restorative potential of exosomes in the treatment of various neurological diseases. With this review, after recalling the features and restorative history, we will discuss the latest stem cell-derived exosome-based treatments for these diseases. (TH) activity and manifestation . In PD, like additional neurological diseases, the manifestation Laminin (925-933) of miRNA profiles is considered as a useful tool for diagnostic and restorative purposes . For instance, Laminin (925-933) miR-433 and miR-16-1 have PD-related pathogenic processes that increase the levels of -synuclein . Also, downregulation of miR-34b/c and upregulation of miR-494 and miR-4639-5p have negative and positive effects, respectively, on DJ-1 protein manifestation (as protector of mitochondrial oxidative damage) [209, 210]. In addition, MSC-derived exosomes induce neural differentiation through the transmission of endogenous and exogenous miRNAs. For example, Lee et al. confirmed the differentiation phenotype in human being neuroprotective cells (NPCs) and upregulation of glutamate transporters in both cell NPC and astrocytes, after delivering two exogenous miRNAs including miR-124 and miR-145 by MSC-derived exosomes . In another example, it has been observed that, although, the miR-133b is definitely significantly reduced in PD individuals, it is enriched in MSC-derived exosomes, and in vitro and in vivo screening revealed the transfer of miR-133b by MSC-derived exosomes led to the growth of neurons . Shin et al. in 2017 recognized miR-17-92 clusters in MSC-derived exosomes with neurogenesis activity that led to stimulation of oligodendrogenesis and improved neuronal function . Despite limited study, the present findings have well shown the beneficial effects of different stem cell sources (MSC and dental care SC) in the treatment of PD based on their endogenous EV weight. Restorative Potential of Stem Cell-Derived Exosome in Multiple Sclerosis Disease Multiple sclerosis (MS) which is an inflammatory demyelination in gray andwhite matter of the central nervous system is the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disability among young adults especially women . In addition to demyelination and swelling in the brain and spinal cord, MS characteristic lesion disruptions of the BBB, loss of oligodendrocytes, reactive gliosis, and axonal and neuron degeneration are the additional pathological biomarkers of this heterogeneous disease . However, it is generally approved that activation of peripheral self-reactive Th1 pro-inflammatory cells and attacking the myelin sheath in the CNS by crossing of the BBB is the main mechanism of inflammatory and degenerative properties of MS [214, 215]. While the pattern of neurological damage in each person with MS is unique, the National MS Society (NMSS) divides the disease into four main types including clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsingCremitting MS (RRMS), main progressive MS (PPMS), and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). More than 80% of people with MS are diagnosed with RRMS, which eventually progresses to a secondary progressive type (SPMS) of MS . Immunomodulatory and Mouse Monoclonal to Human IgG immunosuppressive medicines are the frontline of current MS treatment that increases the risk of illness and malignancy . Alternate disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) began in the 1990s with interferon- (IFN) as first-line providers in the treatment of MS . Currently, there are at least six different parenteral formulations FDA-approved MS medicines such as interferons, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, glatiramer Laminin (925-933) acetate, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators, and monoclonal antibodies which via focusing on immune system at various levels with different mechanisms significantly reduce the rate of recurrence and intensity of the attacks in individuals with relapsing MS and slow down the progression of the disease . However, contrary to favorable effect of DMT medicines on relapsing MS by preventing the rate of recurrence of relapses, they have limited benefit on progressive MS and axonal damage. Also, effectiveness, tolerability, and security of DMT vary between moderate to high levels and actually in instances that are very effective, continuing treatment is limited by the risk of serious side effects including cardiomyopathy [219, 220]. New immune-modulating methods including Laminin (925-933) stem cell transplantation have emerged in regenerative medicine for the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases. The Laminin (925-933) rationale behind stem cell therapies for MS is definitely loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths which is the main cause of axonal degeneration and its correlated functional disability . Stem cell therapy in MS is definitely often classified as an immune reconstitution therapy (IRT) by removing the components of the immune system with the aim of creating an opportunity for self-renewal of the immune system . According to the acquired result by Liu and his colleagues, the main reason of immunomodulatory effects of stem cells is the HLA-G manifestation, as an inhibitor of natural killer cell (NK).