After SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the proteins were transferred to a 0

After SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the proteins were transferred to a 0.01, 0.001, 0.0003, and 0.0001. N-SNPs caused extensive ultrastructural alterations in cell and nuclear MYO7A structures, as paederosidic acid methyl ester well as in various organelles. Furthermore, N-SNPs triggered apoptosis via the activation of caspase 3 and p53, and suppressed the mTOR signaling pathway via downregulating apoptosis-evading proteins in MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cells. Ultrastructural analysis, together with biochemical and molecular analyses, revealed that N-SNPs enhanced apoptosis via the induction of oxidative stress and/or through direct interactions with cellular structures in all tested cells. The cytotoxicity of sp. 1. Introduction Cancer has a major impact on human life today, owing to enormous changes in lifestyle, and it is the second leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Normal cells avoid undergoing tumorigenesis through the regulation of cellular mechanisms underlying vital processes, such as proliferation and cellular growth; however, any deviations in these processes may result in cancer [2]. Cancer cells have the ability to evade apoptosis via controlling the expression of certain genes; that is, the upregulation of the expression of genes that favor survival and proliferation, and downregulation of genes that are responsible for the regulation of cell death pathways [3]. Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, radiation, and surgery, are successful to some extent, but their use is limited by serious adverse effects and poor diagnosis, and by the potential for cancer cells to develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs [4]. Thus, there is a need for new and more effective therapies to fight this disease. Nanotechnology has been used to develop next-generation platforms for cancer diagnosis, therapy, and management [5,6,7]. The nano-revolution affords opportunities for researchers to create, improve, and develop nanoparticle (NP)-based products for use in many medical domains, including pharmaceutical applications, drug delivery, bioimaging, biolabeling, diagnostics, and medical nanodevices [8]. paederosidic acid methyl ester Nanotechnology also allows to us to clearly understand the interactions between nanoscale materials or particles and living cells, in order to create medical solutions to various serious diseases [9]. Furthermore, progress in materials and protein technology has led to a new nanoscale targeting method that may increase the safety and efficiency of therapies for cancer patients [10]. Unlike small-molecule drugs, NPs are distinguished by unique physicochemical features, including a large surface area to volume ratio, permitting these particles to easily penetrate living cells [11]. This makes NPs suitable as both therapeutic agents and detection tools in many diseases, including cancer and infectious diseases [7,12,13]. The large surface areas of NPs also facilitate the modification of their surface by conjugation or loading with target molecules for sensing or delivery in therapeutic applications [14,15,16]. Multiple synthetic methods exist to generate NPs, including physical, chemical, and biological routes [17]. The physicochemical approaches have been used to create NPs of various shapes and sizes, with important agricultural, industrial, and medical applications [18,19]. However, these physicochemical methods use toxic chemicals for capping and reduction during the fabrication of NPs, which threaten the environment. Moreover, these toxic materials remain conjugated to the surfaces of the synthesized NPs, paederosidic acid methyl ester which reduces their biosafety to normal living cells [18,20]. Green synthesis methods have emerged to overcome these limitations. In green paederosidic acid methyl ester synthesis approaches, the synthesis process mimics phenomena that occur in nature. Many living organisms, including bacteria [21], fungi [22], plants [23], and cyanobacteria [24], are able to convert bulk materials in their environment into nanoscale materials. Thus, in the laboratory, to prepare NPs via biological synthesis, the bulk material of interest (as a salt) is reduced using natural sources of reducing and stabilizing agents (macro- or microorganisms, or biomolecules, such as vitamins, proteins, and enzymes) [25]. This process is easy to perform and it requires no toxic material, as well paederosidic acid methyl ester as having the advantages of low cost and low energy consumption, and it is ecofriendly [18]. Several studies have reported that biogenic NPs have low toxicity against normal cells [26,27]. El-Naggar et al. [28] showed that SNPs synthesized using phycobiliprotein that was extracted from sp. had fewer cytotoxic effects against normal WI38 and WISH cells as compared with 5-fuorouracil (a standard anticancer drug). Silver NPs (SNPs) have unique physicochemical and biological.