Consequently, understanding the epidemiologic burden ofH. developed and developing countries are infected with this microorganism [2, 3]. Most of the people acquireH. pyloriinfection during their early child years .H. pylorihas been reported like a common cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer diseases, and gastric malignancy in PR-171 (Carfilzomib) adults . Most ofH. pyloriinfections usually are symptomless and without medical manifestation, particularly in poor areas . However, signs and symptoms associated with the disease are primarily due to gastric or peptic ulcer illness or duodenal swelling. Furthermore, additional symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may be attributed to additional gastrointestinal diseases . infection developed during early child years is considered as a significant risk element for gastric carcinoma in the adult individual . It is well known thatH. pyloriinfection among children is associated with several extragastric diseases, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [1, 7]. Schoolchildren in developing countries are at-risk group due to several factors including low socioeconomic status, poor quality of drinking water, overcrowding, poor personal and environmental hygiene, and food contamination [2, 9]. Screening for the serum IgG antibody toH. pyloriis a practical method for diagnosingH. pyloriinfection in children. However, measurements of theH. pyloriIgG antibody are useful for monitoring treatment ofH. pyloriinfection because of its high level of sensitivity and ease of overall performance [10, 11]. Therefore, this study targeted to determine the prevalence ofH. pyloriinfections among schoolchildren in Kassala and to investigate the associations betweenH. pyloriseropositivity and presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. 2. Materials and Methods A prospective randomized cross-sectional study was conducted during a period from January to December 2012 at Kassala state, east of Sudan (about 500 kilometers from Khartoum capital). Kassala has a human population of 180.000 of different ethnicity and Sudanese tribes . The study human population was comprised of schoolchildren, those who were selected from numerous primary universities in Kassala city. 2.1. Samples and Data Collection A organized questionnaire has been developed to obtain sociodemographic characteristics and gastrointestinal symptoms. Filling of each questionnaire form was achieved by the authors (pediatricians) during their conduction of medical examinations. Moreover, the body mass index (BMI) was acquired (excess weight in kg/height in m2) and the schoolchildren were classified as being underweight, healthy, and overweight. Then about 5?ml of blood sample was collected from each child in a plain container for detection ofH. pyloriantibodies. The collected samples were transported to the laboratory, and then sera were separated by centrifugation at 15.000?rpm for 10 minutes and stored at ?20C until being used for serological checks. Children under antibiotics treatment for the last four weeks, with the illness of the liver, renal, pancreatic, or parasitic infections, or evidence of some other viral or bacterial infections were excluded from the study. The Mouse monoclonal to CD15 study was authorized by the honest clearance committee, Ministry of Health, Kassala state, Sudan. Written consent was from each participant or their parents or guardians after informing them about the importance of the study. 2.2. Screening ofH. pyloriIgG Antibodies The IgG anti-pyloriantibody in serum was recognized using a HexagonH. pyloricommercial immunochromatographic test kit (Human being PR-171 (Carfilzomib) Gesellschaft PR-171 (Carfilzomib) fr Biochemica und Diagnostica mbH, Germany) with a high level of sensitivity (96%) and designate (99%) as per manufacturer’s specification. The procedure adopted the manufacturer’s instructions. In brief, 25?H. pyloriinfection were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to compare every two variables. A value lower than 0.05 was statistically significant. 3. Results A total of 431 children (217 kids and 214 ladies) from different main schools were enrolled in the study. The ages of the schoolchildren ranged from 6 to 18 years (mean 11.78 years + 2.035 (SD)). seropositivity was found to be 21.8% (94/431). The majority of the infected children (84%; 79/94) had BMI below the normal range. Of the 94 positive instances, most of them were kids 60 (27.7%), whereas 34 (15.9%) were ladies. There were statistically significant variations inH. pyloriseropositivity between boys and girls (= 0.003) (Table 1). Table 1 Gender-dependent rate of recurrence of illness among schoolchildren (aged between 6 and 18 years). valueH. pyloriinfections were nausea (25.5%), followed by PR-171 (Carfilzomib) gastric pain (24.5%) and heart pain (20.2%). Open in a separate PR-171 (Carfilzomib) window Number 1 Rate of recurrence of symptoms connected withH. pyloriinfection among schoolchildren. There was no significant difference ofH. pyloriseropositivity between the all age groups.